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Realtime Contingency

1.  NICRA Village: Chikkamaranahalli, Nelamangala Taluk, Bengaluru Rural district, Karnataka

a. Rainfall Situation and Type of Contingency (Delayed onset of monsoon): During 2012 in the village , the onset of monsoon was delayed by 17 days i.e. 23rd June  and  there was a deficit rainfall of about  45%, 73%, 74  and 53%  during June, August, September and October, respectively (Fig. ) and the crops experienced severe moisture stress at various stages. The kharif crops experienced midseason drought with four dry spells of more than >10days  viz. during  1st June to 22nd June (22 days), 1st July to 15th July (15 days), 8th July to 30th July  and  28th August to 27th September (31 days). Further, during north-east monsoon, there  was deficit rainfall of about  159 mm compared to normal (241.1 mm).

         

 

       

 

 

 

 

 

     

  Normal and actual (2012) monthly rainfall at Chikkamaranahalli village

Contingency Plan Implemented:  A conservation furrow was opened between two rows of pigeonpea

in pigeonpea + fingermillet (8:2) and groundnut + pigeonpea (8:2) intercropping systems.

Performance: Opening of conservation  furrow enhanced in-situ moisture  conservation, particularly due to  better rainfall during August, thus overcoming dry spells during vegetative and or reproductive stages of pigeonpea and  fingermillet   resulting increased rainwater use efficiency (RWUE) by 2.25 kg/ha-mm, better performance of crops, additional fingermillet grain equivalent yield  advantage of 1967  kg/ha, additional net returns of  Rs.19545 , increase in  BC ratio by 1.2 compared to farmers' practice of  sole fingermillet in Akkadi system and no conservation furrow.(Table1)

Table1.Managing midseason drought with conservation furrow in  fingermillet + pigeonpea (8:2) intercropping system

Intervention

Rainfall (mm)

Yield (kg/ha)

FMGEY

(kg/ha)

RWUE (kg/ha-mm)

Net returns (Rs/ha)

BC ratio

FM

PP

Fingermillet +

Pigeonpea (8:2) with conservation furrow

621

2667

417

3861

6.22

31534

3.10

Farmers’ practice (Sole fingermillet in Akkadi system and no conservation furrow)

477

1894

-

-

3.97

11989

1.90

FM - Fingermillet,  PP- Pigeonpea; FMGEY- Fingermillet Grain Equivalent Yield

Conservation furrow between rows of pigeonpea in Fingermillet+ pigeonpea (8:2) systems

Fingermillet + Akkadi Crops and no conservation furrow

                Similarly in groundnut + pigeonpea (8:2) intercropping system, due to opening of conservation furrow  between pigeonpea rows, there was  enhanced RWUE of 3.59 kg/ha-mm, better performance of the intercropping system, increased  pigeonpea equivalent  yield  (2072 kg/ha ) and BC ratio (3.32) compared to the farmer's practice of  sole groundnut and no conservation furrow (Table2).

 

Conservation furrow between pigeonpea rows in   roundnut+ Pigeonpea (8:2) intercropping system

Table 2. Improved productivity of groundnut + pigeonpea intercropping with conservation furrow 

Intervention

Rain fall (mm)

Crop duration (days)

Yield

PEY

(kg/ha)

 

RWUE (kg/ha-mm)

Net returns (Rs/ha)

BC ratio

GN

PP

Groundnut + Pigeonpea (8:2) with conservation furrow

577

188

792

913

2072

3.59

40506

3.32

Farmers’ practice

(Sole groundnut  and no conservation furrow)

574

190

547

-

-

0.95

816

1.06

 

GN - Groundnut, PP – Pigeonpea; PEY - Pigeopnpea Equivalent Yield

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Normal and Actual monthly rainfall (2011) at Chikkamaranahalli village

b. Rainfall Situation and Type of Contingency (Mid-season Drought) : In 2011, the village received­­­ 692  mm which was deficit by 59.9 mm compared to normal (751.9 mm). The onset of monsoon was normal. There was deficit rainfall in June, July and in September; as a result the kharif crops experienced dry spells during second fortnight of June, July, October and first fortnight of September coinciding with the vegetative and reproductive stages of pigeonpea, fingermillet and groundnut.

 

c. Performance: With the opening of conservation furrow, moisture conservation was enhanced resulting in increase d  grain yield of fingermillet by 19 % with additional net returns of Rs. 6469/ha and   BC ratio of 2.72 compared to no conservation furrow and sole fingermillet. However, due to severe moisture stress at various stages, the pigeonpea could not perform better further, no yield was obtained (Table3).                                                                                                                                                                              

 Thinning in Pigeonpea in Pigeonpea+Fingermillet intercropping System                                                                                                                                          

Table3.Effect of in-situ moisture conservation in fingermillet + pigeonpea (8:2) intercropping system during 2012

Intervention

Rain fall (mm)

Crop

duration

(days)

Finger millet

RWUE (kg/ha- mm)

Net Returns   (Rs. /ha)

B:C Ratio

Yield

(kg/ha)

Straw

Yield

(kg/ha)

Finger millet + pigeonpea (8:2) with conservation furrow

350

154

2106

4296

6.08

28642

2.72

Farmers’ practice (Sole fingermillet in Akkadi system and no conservation furrow)

247

120

1770

4030

7.16

22173

2.36

                Note: Pigeonpea yield was not obtained      

                Similarly, opening of conservation furrow in between pigeonpea rows  in groundnut (TMV-2) + pigeonpea (TTB-7) in 8:2 ratio ,resulted  in  increased  groundnut pod equivalent yield (718 kg ha-1) by 9.4 % with higher  RWUE (2.14  kg/ha-mm), higher   net returns (Rs. 17,950 /ha) and B: C ratio (2.00) compared to sole groundnut and no conservation furrow (Table 4 ).

 Table4.  In situ moisture conservation in groundnut + pigeonpea intercropping system (2012-13)

Intervention

Yield (kg ha-1)

RF (mm)

Duration

Of Crop 1 & 2

Yield 

(kg ha-1)

Y1 + Y2 (PEY)

RWUE (kg/ha-mm)

Net Returns (Rs/ha)

BC Ratio

Ground- nut

Pigeonpea

Groundnut + pigeonpea (8:2) with conservation furrow

418

375

335

176

718

2.14

17,950

2.00

Farmer’s  Practice (Sole crop)

382

-

249

112

-

1.53

1,600

1.09

Lessons Learnt: The midseason drought at various stages of fingermillet and groundnut was managed by intercropping with two rows of pigeonpea and a conservation furrow in between two pigeonpea rows. This is a simple low cost technology for tackling midseason drought.

ii. Contingency Plan Implemented: In 2012 in the Chikkamaranhalli village, under delayed onset of monsoon, a real-time contingency i.e. medium duration fingermillet variety i.e.  GPU-28 was introduced as direct sown sole crop in 57 farmers fields replacing direct sown long duration fingermillet variety                                i.e. MR-1.

Performance: Under delayed onset of monsoon, GPU-28 performed better which gave higher grain yield, net returns and B: C ratio (1720 kg/ha, Rs.21161/ha  and 2.30, respectively) than long duration variety (MR-1) (1555 kg/ha, Rs. 18096/ha and 2.11, respectively). The higher RWUE  of 10.17 kg /ha- mm  was obtained with GPU-28 compared to 6.17 kg /ha- mm with MR-1.

Table5.Performance of Medium duration fingermillet cv.under delayed onset of monsoon


 Intervention

DOS

Rain fall (mm)

Crop duration

(Days)

Yield (kg/ha)

Straw

Yield

(kg/ha)

RWUE

(kg /ha- mm)

Net Returns (Rs/ha)

BC Ratio

MR-1

(Long duration)

15th  Aug 2012

252

123

1555

4328

6.17

18096

2.11

GPU-28 (Medium duration)

31st Aug 2012

169

115

1720

4015

10.17

21161

2.30

Performance of medium duration fingermillet  cv. GPU-28 under delayed onset of  monsoon in 2012

 

 

                                
 

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